Hardanger is a variety of embroidery that's usually done with white thread on a white background. The name comes from Norway, although the techniques are thought to have originated in Persia or Asia. The picture is of a needlebook I did in a beginner's class about 15 years ago. Someone who knew what they were doing would no doubt have made those little eyelet thingys in the middle in a much more uniform way. Still, it's cute. Hardanger is one of those things that I've been wanting to try again.
Contemporary Hardanger utilizes color in both the backgrounds and embroidery threads. There are a lot of free patterns and instruction right here on the Internet. An excellent source for supplies and patterns is Nordic Needle. I once traveled to Fargo, North Dakota specificially to visit their shop (and to add the 48th state to states I've visited). I highly recommend them.